Few other characteristics more typical Beowulf than the use of numerous different scenes and retreats. While some scholars have attempted to show that the retreat, or some of them, at least, something in them that is unacceptable to the main narrative and harmful to the poetic value of Beowulf, this essay will argue that the retreat and episodes provide conscious balance and unity, in fact, contribute to the artistic value of the poem. Beowulf scholar Adrian Bonjour divide and retreat episodes into four categories: Scyld episode; digressions against Beowulf and the Geats; historical or legendary retreat is not associated with Beowulf and the Geats; and Bible retreat. It is in this framework, where we will explore the specific derogations and to determine their role in the poem.
Before we examine the specific derogations, it is important to give a brief rationale for their presence in general. As noted by Bonjour, the poet skillfully uses the tour to add to the coloring of the verse, to serve as a foil to the situation, to contribute to the historical interest and value to provide a symbolic value that contributes to the effect and understanding of the poem and to strengthen Art effect. In addition, a welcome retreat contain information about the hero & # 39; s life. It is thanks to the digitization of the poet represents the values and perspectives that need to be understood. Action, in the end, only action.
In his section, deviations and episodes, the Bonjour enables Scyld episode of its own category, probably because it is the longest digression from the main narrative in the poem, and it is possible, because it causes a lot of questions. At first glance, the opening of the poem with Scyld and genealogy of the Danish kings looks strange irrelevant in the poem of Beowulf, the hero in Geatish. But with further study, significant parallelism can be found between and Scyld Beowulf. Firstly, how and Scyld Beowulf came miraculously liberate Danes. Scyld, being the first liberator of the poem, Beowulf portends that comes later. A second touch of parallelism between the two kings can be found in their infamous youth. Scyld was discovered miserable and neglected child, and Beowulf strikes his infamous youth. A strange change in their destiny clearly emphasized the poet.
Bonjour indicates that another goal of art in this episode with the & # 39 is to glorify Scyldings. If the alarm condition at Heorot served only an introduction to Beowulf & # 39; s mission, it may have created the impression of weakness on the part of the Danes. As we shall see later, when the Danes were not glorified in the beginning of the poem, Beowulf greatness can be reduced.
Finally, in stark contrast funerary scenes endowed with a "symbolic value, which increases the artistic value" and the unity of the whole poem. Beautiful Description Scyld & # 39; funeral suggests beginning with & # 39 is a symbol of a glorious future. In contrast to this, Beowulf & # 39; s funeral symbolize the end of a glorious past, but the future is fraught with foreboding.
Scyld Episode therefore allows the use of two of your favorite devices: parallelism and contrast. The contrast between Scyld Beowulf and one of the best artistic achievements in the poem, and the parallelism between the two kings might well be summed up in the legendary tomb of the cowboy, as shown JDA Ogilvy and Donald Baker: "Here lies Bronco Bill. He always did his damnedest ».
The next of Bonjour & # 39; s categorical divisions regards derogations relating to Beowulf and the Geats. The first of this group, we will look at Beowulf & # 39; s fight with the guys. This insight serves two purposes: it allows the hero convention demonstrations and yet subtly allies God hero. The immediate objective of the mention of the glorious feat in Beowulf & # 39, S at the beginning of life to give us an illustration of his extraordinary power, and give at the same time, his arrival justification in the Danish court. It also sets Beowulf as a specialist in the fight against monsters, "I came out of the battle, where I tied five broke seven heroes …". showcasing art plays an important role in the epic hero, as he shows the achievements and glorify his name. As shown by Victor Bromberg, a person & # 39; s name is very important in the epic poetry, because it is equal to the sum of his achievements.
The second function of this digression from the & # 39 is surprptitiously ally Beowulf with God. If Beowulf is their strength against the Giants, he could not help linking themselves to the God of Christianity. This gives the advantage of the pagan hero, who, not knowing, fighting on the right side in the end.
In Ecgtheow retreat, we learn that Beowulf & # 39; s father killed Heatholaf, a member of the powerful Wilving tribe, and began a feud with which consequences Geats could not protect him, and he fled to the court of Hrothgar. Hrothgar, therefore, to pay his blood money to Wilfings. Bonjour argues that this retreat has two objectives: firstly, it creates another link between Beowulf and the Danes; second, it balances the fact that the Danes are taking help from Beowulf.
Episode Unferth serve primarily as a foil to emphasize Beowulf & # 39; s greatness. Despite the ominous overtones Unferth & # 39; s reputation as a poet and displays it as a great theane. If Unferth was reduced to a mere thug, Beowulf & # 39; s preference over him would not mean, as it actually does. In his essay "Beowulf: the monsters and criticism," Professor Tolkien says that Beowulf & # 39; s request to nicians in his youth called [in this digression] as an omen to the form of the hero we are dealing with. Answer to a Unferth & # 39; &; Beowulf # 39 s criticism also establishes him as a man to reckon with in big letters, as well as with his sword. Thus, we learn Beowulf & # 39 this digression; qualification with cleaning Heorot, and that the hero is not just a great warrior, but a man capable of delivering a fatal blow in a battle of wits.
Bonjour notes that the first reference in the poem to Haygelaka fall gives us a perfect example of the specific use of contrast characteristics of Beowulf. It is ironic that the first hint Haygelaka & # 39, S drop should be called Treasure description provided by Beowulf Queen Wealtheow after Beowulf & # 39; s victory over Grendel. It looks as if there are already some of the effects of the same nature as those that will be encountered in Dragon history, where, as Bonjour comments beauty dragon treasure and # 39; s Treasure stands in contrast to the curse attached thereto. Here kings against the background of "[the finest] under heaven," but Haygelak was when he was killed.
Next, we consider an excursion to Beowulf & # 39; s inglorious youth and Heremod & # 39; s tragedy conjuntion with each other. Heremod & # 39; s tragedy actually goes beyond the framework proposed Adrien Bonjour, as it has nothing to do with Beowulf and the Geats directly. Nevertheless, we will bring insight Heremoda of the proposed model, as it provides a significant contrast Beowulf & # 39; s infamous youth.
A brief digression on Beowulf & # S 39 ingloriously youth, but the other terminal of which contributes to praise hero. Ingloriously youth enhances the effect of his later glorious deeds and makes them more distinctive contrast. But this insight reaches its full effect when contrasted with the tragedy Heremoda. In Hrothgar & # 39; it s up to Beowulf, we learn that Heremod was a strong, brave hero that car & # 39; EASURES filed high hopes, but it was a bad leader. Beowulf, on the other hand, the first contempt, but he grew up in the glorious hero. Heremod & # 39; tragicy s overrides, though negatively, that a good king should be. Thus, we have a bad start (in Beowulf), and then a phenomenal rise contrasts with the brilliant promise (of Heremodu) ends in a helpless fall.
The next tour be audited concern Haygelaku & # 39; s death in Friesland and Beowulf & # 39, S swim back and confidential custody Herdreda. The poet tells how Beowulf escapes from Friesland where Haygelak killed, swim back to their country with thirty to panoplies armor on his arm. It is obvious that this part of the tour is to further glorify Beowulf & # 39; additional abilities seconds. Later we learn that Beowulf turns down Queen Hygd & # 39; s proposal Geatish positions in favor of acting as counsel to Herdredu, the rightful heir. Beowulf & # 39; s rejection of the crown shows his moral greatness. Geats There is a stark contrast to the Danes. Ogilvy and Baker suggest that unlike Wealtheow, who will receive securing the success of their sons to the throne, Hygd asks Beowulf to take the throne in favor of his son for the good of the people. This contrast is even greater when compared with the situation in the Danish court, where Hrothulf possession of his uncle & # 39; s throne. The history of the Danish inheritance serves as a foil on the one hand, we have a treacherous usurpation, on the other hand, the refusal to accept the crown of pure devotion. Along with the glorification of Beowulf, this excursion brings the theme of fidelity to the fore.
In search of the dragon & # 39; s den, Beowulf makes a long speech, in which he looks back at his life from the moment when, at the age of seven, he came to the court of his grandfather, King Hretel. The immediate goal of Beowulf & # 39 S long conversation seems to pause, so that the hero can gather strength and resolution, looking back on the life of the valiant deeds. But this retreat is much deeper when we read in the King Hretel & # 39; s anguish over his eldest son, Herbeoldom who accidentally killed his brother Sin. Accidental killing involves inaccessibility of Wyrd (fate), and on the other hand, most bitter lamentation prepares Hretel dominant mood at the end of the poem (Bonjour 34). This theme "Christian" decision earthly troubles ahead RATIONE Beowulf & # 39; th action. He will also take their destiny. Bonjour claims that & # 39; Wyrd appearance here is important as it gives us the leitmotif not only digression, but in general, the end of the poem.
last survivor & # 39; S Speech from the & # 39 Elegy is cut from the same cloth, "Ominous death sent many races of people." Tolkien argues that here, the poet turns to the ancient theme: that man, every man and all men and all their works are to die for.
In a short digression on Wehstan (Wiglaf & # 39; s father) and his killing Inmund, we learn the story of Wiglaf & # 39; s sword. The main objective of this retreat, to give us something Wiglaf & # 39; s pedigree, and to establish that Wiglaf is not normal, it is the same blood as Beowulf. Establishing Wiglaf & # 39, S history is important because if this part was played by any other geat, Beowulf & # 39; s heroic courage, it would seem, was matched by an ordinary person. Furthermore, there is a parallel between Wiglaf & # 39.; nd loyalty and Beowulf Beowulf & # 39.; Loyalty to a Haygelaka.
Last tour, we'll look at in this section deals again Haygelak & # 39, S fall and fight at Ravenswood. After Haygelak & # 39; s raid, the enmity between the Franks and Geats remained. The Swedes do not trust any so Beowulf & # 39; s death is likely to revive the memory of the enmity between them and the Geats. With the opening of this last retreat, the Bonjour notes that the poet allows to capture what the future has in store for the Geats. Plainly, the author uses the Wiglaf & # 39; s messenger as a means to predict the fate that awaits Geatish nation.
A third category concerns historical deviations or deviations legendary not directly related to Beowulf and Geats. The first excursion into this category concerns the fate of Heorot. As soon as no poet has described the glorious building Heorot, which he concludes, "that will be waiting for the fiery flames of vengeful fire." The allusion to a feud between Ingeld and Hrothgar. This illustrates another example of the poet tells his story with a view of the structural iron, which alternates prosperous with tragic events. Here, William Alfred notices that Hrothgar is configured as a heroic king loyal Comitatus, but suddenly, it begins as a description of the impressive hall Heorot breaks on its destruction by fire as a result of enmity. at the moment, the Bonjour sr dvae that the inherent contrast between the harmonious situation and a short hint disaster adds to the impression of melancholy, in which so much imbued with the poem.
After Beowulf slew Grendel, improvising bard was in honor of Beowulf and compares it with Sigemund and Heremod . Sigemund was a big killer monsters and the greatest adventurer with a dysfunctional Heremod. Beowulf, they say, is comparable to Sigemund. Sigemund and Heremod induced to give us a standard of comparison for Beowulf. Bonjour realize that all this digression, of course, intended to praise the hero.
The next tour we will test begins suddenly as Beowulf returns home with Hrothgar & # 39, S trial. We are given a description Haygelak & # 39; s court to Beowulf & # 39; s coming, and then the retreat begins. The passage devoted to a comparison between Hygd, Haygelak & # 39.; s queen, and Modthryth, queen of Offa, King of England to their migration to England. At first glance, it may seem Modthryth, Heremod like to be just a bad character introduced to enhance the dignity of one good (Hygd) contrast. Modthryth, however, than it is with the & # 39 is more complex. It starts as a cruel and tyrannical princess, but it redeems itself once on the throne of England in Offa & # 39; s side. This opposition provides the link between this episode and Heremodom & # 39; s tragedy. However, the relevant practice Heremoda Modthryth and work exactly the opposite course. This digression serve several purposes: Modthryth serves as a foil for Hygd; connection Heremodu reiterates the "abuse of power" theme, and Modthryth & # 39; s the beginning, too, can be considered as parallel Beowulf & # 39; s ingloriously youth; dubious beginning, which thrives in the glorious end.
We will look at Finn and Ingeld episodes together, since the parallelism between them is undeniable. Finn episode with & # 39 is the story of the blood feud between the Danes and the Frisians. Nf & # 39; sister, Hildeburh Danish princess who was married to King Finn of the Frisians, in order to end the feud. Peace, however, is short-lived and the point of the episode Finn directly to the subject of precarious peramir & # 39; I was between the two nations. Speaking prophetic stories about Ingeld of Beowulf believes that a military alliance between the Danish princess, and Frevor Ingeld, Heathobards Prince will give similar results. Bonjour argues that the central theme of the two episodes are the same, that the tribal strife, sooner or later will sweep away all attempts to compromise human. In fact, it too is a central theme throughout the poem.
The latter category, which is to make a point of retreat biblical character. Because of its Christian elements, Song of Creation, as well as a hint of Giants & # 39; war against God and hints on Cain all take place in the first row.
Creation Song with & # 39 is almost simultaneously with the introduction of Grendel, "There, he said, who could link the beginning of men far back in time, he said that God created the earth …". Song creation goes back to the biblical description in the Book of Genesis. His immediate goal is clear enough, it is a question of contrast. A rare note of joy in the beauty of nature contrasts with the deep melancholy inspired dreary monastery Grendel.
Now we will look at hints of Cain and giant, and at the same time, it is important to note that the monsters are presented from two perspectives. For pagan characters, these creatures eotenas [giants] and scuccan [evil spirits] -Sun terms with Germany's demonology. But the poet in his voice tells us about the true genealogy Grendelkin: they were fearful the descendants of Cain. This two-bound matrix monsters places them at the same level as the dragon that Sigemund killed, and on another level, it has connotations satanic evil that Bible puts therein. At this point, a new Scripture and the tradition of the old block.
The destruction of the giants, is said to have carved on the handle of the magic sword that allows Beowulf kill Grendel & # 39; s mother. Beowulf & # 39; s struggle is now felt to partake of the struggle between the forces of good and evil. We said earlier that the two beasts were of the same kind as the Giants, but as a Bonjour show, now we know that the God really helps the hero, directing his attention to the magic sword, which reflects God & # 39; s own actions against the accursed race. Now, it's almost as if Beowulf was elevated to the rank of God and # 39; s own champion. Beowulf, for all that it is moving in the world of primitive heroic age, suddenless with & # 39 is [for a moment] almost Christian knight.
Bonjour concludes that Beowulf once in the position of the king actually goes beyond Picure ideal king, sacrificing his life for his people, the importance of which is emphasized in contrast with Hrothgar & # 39; s own attitude to Grendel. But Hrothgar has the perfect figure of the king, so now it becomes easier to compare Beowulf to the Savior, King of dedicated, prototype highest perfection.
Scholar BJ Timmer see verse form as a failure due to the poet and # 39; s compromise in an attempt to glorify both pagan and Christian elements. Джон Leyerle адгалоскі гэты погляд, калі ён апісвае тэму верша, як «фатальнае супярэчнасць у асяродку гераічнага грамадства», у якім патрабаванне пабуджальнага кода для героя індывідуальных дасягненняў і слав, у той час як грамадства патрабуе цара, які дамагаецца для агульнага дабра , Але чаму павінна быць неабходнае падзел тут? Хіба гэта не патрабуе гераічнага індывіда дасягнуць дзеля агульнага дабра? Паэт Беавульф, справядліва, не выконвае гэты падзел.
У зняволенні варта адзначыць, што альбо ці не мы захапляемся адступлення, мы павінны прызнаць, што яны з'яўляюцца часткай паэта & # 39; s метад, а не вынікі няўмела. Тут я згодны з Bonjour, што звёны адступленняў і эпізодаў у асноўны сюжэт надзвычай разнастайныя, але, як мы ўжо бачылі, яны ўсе звёны рэлевантнасці, што сплесці асноўную тэму і яго фон у элітны габелен. Тэадор М. Андэрсан сумуе значэнне адступленняў, калі ён піша:
Паэт звярнуў свае налады з сцэнічнага рэпертуару старэй гераічнага
ляжаў, але ён нацягнуты традыцыйныя сцэны разам з маралямі
каментара ў выглядзе адступленняў, успамінаў, хваставство, які адлюстроўвае
speches і упартая акцэнт на нечаканых разваротах-ўсяго тэндэнцыя
каб падкрэсліць пікі і западзіны чалавечага вопыту.
Добрая доза здаровага сэнсу павінны высылаць любыя млявыя перакананні, з боку скептыкаў, што паэт & # 39; адступлення сек бесклапотныя або што яны памяншаюць значэнне паэмы. Як мы ўжо бачылі ў гэтым артыкуле, ёсць проста занадта шмат прыкладаў прадвесці, асцярожны кантраст і паралелізму для адступленняў, былі нядбайна кінутыя ў сумесь. Такім чынам, мы павінны зрабіць выснову аб тым, што ўсё ззаду адступлення знойдзеныя пэўны мастацкі дызайн досыць выразны, каб дазволіць нам пагадзіцца з Bonjour, што кожны з іх гуляе карысную ролю ў паэме. Іншымі словамі, мы выявілі, што ўсе адступленняў, у той ці іншай ступені, мастацка апраўданымі.