Ten precepts effective communication

Everything that we do is communication. Without respect, we will not be able to interact in a civilized manner. Without respect, we will not be able to create a modern society. Without respect, we would not be able to create prosperity for themselves. Without respect, we would not be able to build the organization required for the reproduction of material goods. Communication with the & # 39 is the most important building block of the human civilization. According to the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas social reality consists of two parts: a system and life-world. The system consists of a political subsystem and economic subsystem. Life-world of the private domain and the public domain consistors. Communication occurs in the system or strategically based on finding ways to search and clarify the various methods and techniques to make our lives richer and more efficiently. Communication with the living world & # 39 is the opposite; it is based on balanced relations between people and directed towards a consensus on many issues facing our social reality. Communication in the life-world is really aimed at finding common grounds among all the people involved. For this reason, Habermas calls all interactions in a living world of communicative rationality.

If the communication is so important, it implies a certain level of competence in the strategy and tactics of communication carried out by all people, regardless of their educational, social origin, nationality and a common language. Unfortunately, this is not true, because a large number of people do not have the necessary skills needed to become successful. Most of them are simply confused by their daily life, using basic communication skills that are barely enough to keep their heads above water. That in fact the characteristics of a good communicator? Below are some typical characteristics which have good communicators:

1. Good communicators to pay attention to everything that the other person is communicating;

2. Good communicators are constantly thinking about the nature of their messages: they always think about when, where and how they will deliver their messages;

3. Good communicators are always trying to find the right combination of words, body language, clothing, and tone of voice before sending the message;

4. Good communicators try to avoid using the same words when sending their messages of different people, because no one from the & # 39 is identical. Good communicators are trying to figure out what's important to the other person;

5. Good communicators are always ready to be flexible and try to move on after the delivery of their messages the way of decision-making, problem solving, negotiation of compromise, etc .;

6. Good communicators are fully aware of the mutual nature of the communication, which is a process of giving and receiving messages. Good communication is like a dance, which is a leading and more.

While the above typical characteristics seem obvious and easy to understand, many people have difficulty applying them in a consistent manner. Communication is a process which compares with driving. The more you do it, the better you will become a driver. Experience is the best teacher in communication. In addition, the desire to learn from experience is very important. Of course, we make mistakes, but we try to learn from those mistakes and become better next time.

Explaining the above characteristics of a good communicator, ten teams of effective communication?

1. Always try to give feedback on the basis of facts, not on opinions and / or emotions that may disturb or offend the other person;

2. Always try to empathize and see the situation from the other & # 39; s point of view. Try to take another person & # 39; s views without preaching and / or moralizing;

3. Criticize, using neutral language and tone of voice;

4. Say what you mean without being sarcastic;

5. If you want something from the other, to ask, not command;

6. Give the other person the opportunity to speak, do not slip in the & # 39; & # Railroading 39 ;;

7. Explain why something needs to happen, is not threatened;

8. Do not give advice or opinions when people are not asking for it;

9. Stay on point, to avoid confusion at all costs;

10. Do not talk down or up to the other; Sun redirect the conversation details.

Source by Martin Hahn

New York Hotels

New York with a & # 39 is one of the richest and the most happening cities in the world. New York is famous New York Stock Exchange, the Statue of Liberty, nanotechnology and microchip making, its vineyards, its cut and its gardens. GDP of New York is more than $ 1 trillion dollars. They say that if New York was an independent country in itself, it would be the 16th largest economy in the world. New York with a & # 39 is a thriving city and Times Square with a & # 39 is one of the busiest places in New York. Personal income per capita in New York for more than $ 46,000 this way, the majority of people living in New York is very rich, with the exception of those living in the ghetto of the city. Hotels in New York, as well as other New York institutions, with the & # 39 are plush, posh, dazzling and preferred.

Sights in New York

like New York with the & # 39 is a well-known financial and commercial center of the United States of America and the world, a few businessmen and women travel to New York frequently. New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the largest stock exchange in the world, with the & # 39 is an important trade center in New York, the United States and the world. The headquarters of many multinational companies and investment banks are located in New York. New York hotels provide excellent accommodation for all corporate managers, as well as for tourists visiting New York. New York happens to be a great tourist attraction and a crowded vacationers from around the world. Empire State Building, American Museum of Natural History, the Museum of Modern Art, Broadway, Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, Madison Square Garden, World Financial Center, the new World Trade Center, Hudson River, Carnegie Hall, Central Park, the Statue of Liberty, the Queens Zoo, Center Rockefeller, Wall Street, etc., are some of the many tourist hotspots of New York. New York hotels usually arranges tours for their guests so that the latter can have a gala in New York.

Different types of New York hotels and different areas of New York

Hotel New York in countless numbers. New York hotels can be broadly divided into luxury hotels in New York, New York boutique hotels, airport hotels and hotels in New York. Hotels in New York, to meet the needs of different travelers. However, most hotels in New York charge exorbitant amounts from their guests. Even cheap hotels in New York asking price, that ban. Manhattan & # 39 is one of the most expensive places in New York, in addition to Broadway and Times Square. Chinatown in Manhattan, with & # 39 is a popular home for Asian immigrants. Manhattan also happens to be a favorite place for all tourists of the city. Brooklyn with the & # 39 is one of the cheapest areas of New York, with the exception of the ghetto areas predominantly populated by African-American population of New York City. Harlem with & # 39 is another area of ​​New York, where most of the city's African-American population lives. Asian immigrants in New York, living mainly in the borough of Queens.

The reason why the Hotel New York is never a shortage of drivers and passengers due to the fact that New York is a & # 39 is extremely well connected to the city. New York is served by underground rail system and four suburban railway lines. The international airport of John F. Kennedy & # 39 is the main airport of the city. A few hotels in New York multiplied in close proximity to the various tourist attractions in New York, so that guests can go on a sightseeing tour easily without boarding buses or hiring long-distance automobiles for traveling.

Conference rooms in luxury and boutique New York hotels

Some of the best and most expensive hotels in New York City The Waldorf Astoria, The Four Seasons Hotel, The Carlyle, Peninsula, New York Palace, The Alex, Trump International etc. Carlisle & # 39 is a great old New York hotel that encapsulates the old-world charm and aura. It includes a large building on Madison Avenue, and is rated as one of the finest boutique hotels in New York. The hotel boasts 4,033 square feet of meeting and conference rooms. One of the most beautiful hotels in New York, the Carlyle sports facade is decorated in Art Deco style. Hotel beautifully carved ceiling. Carlyle offer a huge and impressive banquet and meeting rooms, lobbies and suites. This is one of the few hotels in New York, it is the ideal place for the hall of battles meetings, symposiums, seminars, conferences, after dinner meets, weddings, dances, and parties. The conference rooms are equipped with the latest Carlisle and hi-streamed audio-visual gadget, so that the conference can be carried out without problems.

If Carlisle imposes, then The Waldorf Astoria is gorgeous. Waldorf Astoria to the & # 39 is one of the hotels in New York, which will take you back to a time when gentlemen in evening dress, accompanied by ladies in long dresses with a horse barouche-landau Victorian-style living, where people are still observed British mannerisms and customs in the New world. The hotel is decorated with antique furniture and decorations, which date back to 1893 when the hotel was built. Waldorf Astoria to the & # 39 is an excellent venue for meetings and events. The hotel has 60,000 square feet of meeting rooms. Waldorf Astoria to the & # 39 is one of the few hotels in New York, which boasts a wealth of experience and, therefore, a wealth of experience in state dinners and corporate meetings. It is also one of the few hotels in the city, which has invested millions of dollars to expand its meeting facilities and technological capabilities. Waldorf Astoria to the & # 39 is one of the few hotels in New York, which offers corporate guests a downlink satellite broadcast on the & # 39 objects and ultra-high-speed Internet connectivity to support hi-tech video conferencing and web conferencing.

Where meetings and events are concerned, the Waldorf Astoria is regarded as one of the special hotels in New York. This is due to the fact that the hotel assigns the task of Conference Management in the event manager, which performs the task of Conference management on behalf of clients or guests. Event Manager and their team look into every aspect of conference management, so that customers do not experience any problems in conducting and holding conferences. The fourth and eighteenth story hotel designed for conferences and events. Each of the luxury hotels and boutique in New York & # 39 is an excellent venue for meetings and events. Luxury and boutique hotels in New York charge anything between $ 219 and $ 3,600 a day for each guest. Many say that luxury and boutique hotels in New York too lush and spectacular. They show new money, quietly. Many believe that hotels in New York, however flashy, does not compare to London or Paris hotels hotels in the classroom and heritage. Hotels in New York, according to many, show more energy than anything else. This is not surprising, because New York is located in the United States, the most powerful country in the world.

Airport New York hotels and business centers

Now let's turn to consider some other types of hotels in New York, New York served by three airports: John F. Kennedy International Airport, the airport of La Guardia and Newark Liberty International Airport . Hotels that are classified as hotels from the airport of New York is located in close proximity to these airports. Different Hotel airport in New York, which are located close to the International JFK Airport Ramada Plaza Hotel, Fairfield Inn by Marriott, Days Inn, Best Western, Comfort Inn, Holiday Inn Express, Sheraton, etc. Various hotels in the airport in New York, which are located close to La Guardia Airport are in LaGuardia Airport Hotel, Clarion Hotel, Marriott, Crowne Plaza, Comfort Inn, etc. different at the airport in New York, which are located near the Newark Liberty International Airport to the & # 39 are Marriott, Days Hotel, Wyndham Garden Hotel, Renaissance Hotel, etc.

These New York City hotels charge much lower prices than in the boutique and luxury hotels in New York. If you choose to stay at any of the airport hotels, you'll have to shell out about $ 49 to $ 199 per day. Affordable, is not it? But on the downside, most of the hotels airport in New York can not afford you the conference room at the rates they charge you. Most of these hotels, however, have business centers, which are equipped with a photocopier, facsimile, wireless Internet connection, as well as computers with Internet connection. Some of the airport hotels in New York, such as Fairfield Inn By Marriott, have banqueting hall. Airport Hotels in New York with the & # 39 are obviously furnished and poorly decorated.

Something & # 39; I Pet Friendly, New York hotel

Family hotels and pet-friendly hotels and other types of hotels in New York, but this hotel is not available in the main family & # 39; and on holidays rather than people who would like to hold the meeting. Thus, the conference room is not present in such hotels. However, because there are exceptions to all rules, some of these hotels are equipped with business and conference facilities.

Cheap New York Hotels

And finally, we come to the part of the hotel, known as the cheap hotels in New York. Most of the cheap hotels New York Sun Hotel but hostel, hotels and resorts. As mentioned earlier, even cheap hotels in New York can be expensive. However, they are much cheaper compared to other hotels in New York City. They also do not have a reasonable comfort. That is why they are labeled as a cheap hotel in New York. Most of the rooms in cheap hotels New York do not have attached bathrooms and guests must use a shared bathroom in the hallway. Cheap hotels in New York landed in the main street, students and tourists, who not only did not mind the inconvenience of life, but also to take their adventurous spirit.

The numbers of these hotels are not equipped with telephones and these hotels do not accept payment by credit card. The rooms of many of these New York hotels are equipped with two & # 39; bunk beds and almost resemble dormitories. Bathrooms in these hotels may also be contaminated. And do not even think about hosting the conference at these hotels in New York, if you are not ready to call "a room full of young students jumping" in "conference". But cheap hotels in New York, as a rule, are located in areas close to the subway in New York, tourist hotspots and shops. Thus, you can get a good view of the city, if you live in these hotels, if you do not mind the accompanying hardships.

Choice Hotels New York

You can choose hotels in New York, according to your budget, conference preferences, a conference hall, the hotel offers, hotels and other accommodation options. If you choose wisely, you'll stand to gain in many ways, because New York has a lot to offer. Urban landscape of New York, most of the luxury hotels of New York capture beautiful while poverty and squalor in a ghetto of New York with a & # 39 is shocking and sad. One thing I must say, with all the hotels in New York, or to the & # 39 are they expensive hotels or boutique hotel or at the airport or family hotels, or cheap hotels – they will help you get a sense of the city and experience the city from different angles and points view.

Source by Damien Ghosh

Tips and suggestions to find information about the city of Paris

Staying in hotels is expensive, but sometimes we just can not avoid it. You may have to check into a hotel room for business, here & # 39; and personal and other reasons. In this article we will show some of the best ways to find cheap deals.

Find a good hotel can be a little difficult, because you want a place that is a & # 39 is a safe yet accessible. Hosting plans will differ from hotel to hotel, according to their categories, as well as the services that they offer. The hospitality industry is booming, and hoteliers have come up with attractive discounts and deals to encourage more and more guests to stay with them.

Ideally, you should make reservations for your rooms in advance, in order to enjoy the offers available and the best deals. You can also keep a track of fares online hotels as well, especially if you have plans to travel to any place in the near future. Websites like the internet can be very resourceful to find cheaper hotels.

There are some clever ways to check on the cheapest price for the hotel rooms, some of the suggestions and advice given below:

agents- Journey

Travel agents can be very big help plan the entire trip including travel, shopping, local attractions, car rental, and housing. They also offer an all-inclusive family tour packages at competitive prices. They can help you find the best hotels according to your needs and budget.

These days, most of the leading travel agencies, such as the Travelodge UK also serves its customers their official sites. Now you do not need to call them, or drive all the way to their offices to book tickets.

you can easily check the availability of the hotel on their website and plan your trip accordingly. They also came up with seasonal offers and discounts that can help you in maintaining a large amount of money on your travel and accommodation.

Cheap hotel finder sites:

Cheap hotel finder sites can help you easily find, or find a good and safe hotel. They provide you with intelligent online tools to find where you can search availability for a specific date range, and in accordance with the purpose of your choice. Search results will give you a very good overview of the hotels that are perfect score.

These types of hotels search directories is more convenient for the user, because you do not have to visit each website, the hotel individually in order to check prices. Travel to a new place can be a bit confusing, so you should make it a point to book travel and accommodation in advance.

You can also check travel websites to learn more about the places you visit. There you will get to learn more about the place, from the past experience of others. This will help you in making an informed choice, and packaging of great offers at the same time.

Source by Mohammed Abdul Nadeem

How to check PNR status

With regard to transport, the trains to & # 39 are the most common way. Of course, there are some better alternatives, but most people simply can not afford them. Trains are considered to be low-cost and effective means of transport.

Check your status the PNR

If you intend to travel by train, we recommend you follow the status of your PNR. Status may change as some confirmed tickets canceled.

You must check the condition again and again before the big day, especially if your ticket status is still "waiting" or "RSK". In most cases, changes in the status of "the RAC" in the "confirmed" in a short time, but the "Waiting" status may take a little longer to change. Sometimes it happens that the ticket does not get confirmed at all.


Although you can go to the official website of the railways to check the status, to know that this process is slow. the other problem is that you can only check the status, if you have booked a ticket through the official website and not third party websites. [19659004] Thus, the & # 39; better to look for a convenient alternative there Shema. so third-party sites that can help you check the status of the ticket. All you have to do is give the number of the PNR. After a moment or two, your status will be displayed.

What is the status of the PNR?

Most residents familiar with the PNR. But there may be some passengers who may not be familiar with this term. It may be a foreigner who may be on the tour. So, if you are a foreigner, then we can help you understand the term better.

If you do not know, the PNR short term for «Passenger Name Record». First of all, this number is stored in the rail database along with other information, such as age, name and number of passengers who are going to travel.

In layman & # 39; s terms, as soon as you have booked your ticket, you will be assigned a 10-digit number that will be stored in a database at once. It will contain some other information about you. Based on the number of passengers confirmed this status may change. Therefore, # 39; It s important to check the status of a few times to ensure that your place has been confirmed.

Number will contain a lot of details about you, such as your name train, travel time, date, sex, and so on. Your privacy will not be violated, though. Even if you are using any third party application or a Web site, your personal information will not be compromised. Even if someone gets access to your number the PNR, they can only check their status, nothing more. Your important details such as your name and address will not be displayed either.

In addition to your ticket, not personal status including your gender, age, or be common travel destination.

In short, if you intend to travel by train, we suggest that you use a good third-party Web site to check the status of your ticket. It & # 39; best if you use only those sites that have good ratings.

Source by Shalini Madhav

UK National Lottery Sales Thrive tickets in recession

The best sales year in the UK National Lotto tickets only reported lottery organizers Camelot UK. No mean feat for a company based in a country that is experiencing a deep recession.

On March 31, 2008 to March 31, 2009 sale of tickets will rise to £ 5 billion, which was £ 182.8 million more than in the previous year. In total ticket sales increased by 12% over the past five years.

Almost sales were caused by people who support the Olympic Games (to be held in London in 2012), buying more lottery tickets and scratch cards to raise funds for the event.

There are more than three years to go, but the Olympic Tee £ 750 million (GBP) looks good with a £ 400 million (GBP) already raised and a further £ 750 million plan to unforeseen circumstances may make the diversion of funds other lottery benefactors.

Camelot, which launched in the UK Lotto for three consecutive terms, said that it is considered to increase the sales growth was around people now playing the lottery or on their mobile phones or the Internet.

Playing the lottery so that customers save time by not having to queue for tickets every week. But despite more importantly, they avoid the possibility of losing their tickets, and if you play through the internet, it may even have the results emailed to them after each draw takes place, making all their records risk lottery.

In general, the future looks good for the organizers and their customers, as well as a good cause, supported by the UK National Lottery.

Source by Peter Moore

More Christmas flights to Honolulu

Happy Holidays Christmas a little more than three months away many singles, couples and seven & # 39; ads plans to spend the season in Honolulu, or any of the Hawaiian Islands. The good news is that the airlines expect this surge in travel and start working to add flights to their schedules to make sure that you can get a flight that works in your schedule.

Continental Airlines recently announced that they will add an additional daily non-stop flight from X & # 39; Euston in Honolulu. This increases the total number of lines from X & # 39; Euston Honolulu to three. The new flight will start from December 17, will depart X & # 39; Euston every afternoon around 3:00 pm and arrives in Honolulu shortly before seven. Please note that all times with & # 39 are local.

At the same time, people in the Air Canada will give residents of the country a lot of opportunities to get away from the cold and ice to rest this winter. Air Canada announced that they will be adding a new direct flight from Calgary to Honolulu, the compounds are also available in major metropolitan Vancouver Airport in Vancouver, there are already several options for flight, if you want to go to Honolulu or Maui. New flights Calgary will include three weekly trips to Maui and two to Honolulu.

Although these two carriers have made the first steps to add flights in Honolulu for this Christmas, they will not be the last. If you are even considering Christmas holiday season in any resort destination you have to start looking at flight options at the moment. There are several online sites that can help you keep track of the different flight schedules and rates based on your date of departure and lot size.

Source by Dexter Michaels

Price Vs value in vacation bookings

When it comes to saving money for the trip – if the value of using a travel agent is worth paying a little more than the price you will find on the Internet

In contrast, online booking, if you book with a travel agent, you are? receive far more services than you will with online agency. Our work does not end when we deliver the tickets to you – he is still with our help while you travel, and when you get home. How you may ask?

Here are some examples of actual travel problems of the client, that the cost of using a travel agent to book outweighs own.

We ordered something & # 39; u on vacation package Cape. They were connecting flights and called us, because their first flight leaving was delayed for several hours, causing them to miss their connection flight.They call us from the airport, because they were concerned that the company that their translations have been through will not at the airport to pick them up. We got in touch with a supplier who has changed the flight time and made sure that the transfer of the company had new information.

from Georgia Customers were supposed to fly February 13, 2010 in San Juan on a cruise leaving at 10 pm on 14 February. at 8:00 am on February 13, they called us in a panic. It was snowing, their flights have been canceled and the airline told customers they will not be able to do not buy them until Monday.

Fortunately, they were able to get to Florida, and we found a flight on another airline February 14 that would get them a cruise ship with plenty of time to spare. We canceled the San Juan hotel, found the hotel in Orlando for her that would allow them to park your car for free on the cruise and shuttle it back and forth to the airport. Our client said that if she booked it myself, she would not know what to do, and would be heartbroken that are not able to travel. As it also acquired travel insurance, we began to demand a delay in the way for its compensation difference in the price of flights, as well as its cost of gas, tolls and meals to get back and forth to Orlando airport. Forms were waiting for her when she came back from her cruise.

A few years ago we had customers who have booked their trip and has canceled a trip a month before the date on which they were to leave for a reason that was not covered by travel insurance. Supplier was adamant that the cancellation was not returned. We petitioned for and were able to get partial credit book another trip for one year, so that the client does not lose all your money.

Today, the client sent us a price offer for a holiday in Punta Cana asking if we could beat the price. It cost holiday with connecting flights from Philadelphia, and upon her return, she had chosen a flight that left punt Kan at 7 am. We asked her when she realized that to make that return flight home, it would have to be at the airport 4:30 to give her enough time to get through security. She had no idea that it would have to be at the airport that early. Not only do we have & # 39; The amount of the price, we found it in direct flights cheaper than it was quoted by the online agency and its return flight left at 1:05 pm. [19659002] What other value we provide if you book with us, you will not get by booking online? We will send you information purposes, to inform you of the documentation you need to travel, to provide information on additional tours, send you useful tips and reminders to the last minute, and we are available 24 hours, if you have problems while you are traveling, on as indicated above. We will contact you when you get back, and if there is a problem to be solved with the supplier, we will admire, to try to find a satisfactory solution.

or & # 39 is such a service worth paying a bit more for?

Source by Neil Maley

Hotel Marketing Made Easy

Gone are the days to promote your hotel through magazines, catalogs and flyers. Today, the first place goes to the adoption of a tourist booking hotels with & # 39 is the Internet. Which grew by more than 73% over the last 5 years, to book online high waves traveling these days. Recent reports suggest that the passage forms the largest category of e-commerce today, closely are selling tickets, online travel industry in order to reap in $ 700 billion in 2012, the number is growing exponentially with the services of traditional travel agencies to quickly leave and interrupted Obviously, hotel Internet marketing today is going way.

Determination of the need for innovative approaches in their marketing strategies, which are designed to attract the attention of potential customers, the hotel today is drawn to the hotel website promotion through Internet Marketing. It is very important to the hotel website to be competent enough to convert the number of visitors in the order. Website & # 39; s design, layout, structure, content, etc. have a significant impact on the rate of conversion. Rich SEO (Search Engine Optimization) and a & # 39 is part of the hotel and allows you to stand out in the very first reliable booking engine page. Hotel website today, allows customers to take a virtual tour of the hotel and read all the available information, study reviews and ratings, etc. Based on these factors, the user selects whether or not to make an order.

This is, however, important that the hotel marketing tools to be innovative, less complex and easily accessible. Visually speaking the digital future. Pleasant and attractive site demonstration of magical images of the hotel and its surroundings is definitely catches the visitor & # 39; s attention, but also offers a competitive advantage of the hotel. Dissemination of information to the & # 39 is another tool for the hospitality marketing. In addition, the hotel & # 39; s website must be able to weave a story that illuminates the guest about the various benefits and services offered. Particular attention should be paid to the company & # 39; s competitive advantage over the other with the right FAQ & # 39; s, in order to reap more customer satisfaction.

Recent reports suggest that if the property does not sell yourself on social networks, they are more likely to experience a drop in traffic of 2% per month, and those that increase the number of views by 12% per month. If you leave the Statistics aside, the reason why the hotel & # 39; Internet marketing strategy will include an effective social media because of the simple reason that this is where all the guests! Approximately 1 out of every 13 people on earth use Facebook today, and half of them enter every day! Social Center, Facebook, where people connect and communicate opinions, thoughts and feedback. It also includes a lot of information about the trip. Ensure that your hotel is active on the social scene with a & # 39 is a vital tool for the demanding new guests and retain old ones.

Source by Kritika Singh

The purpose of deviations in Beowulf

Few other characteristics more typical Beowulf than the use of numerous different scenes and retreats. While some scholars have attempted to show that the retreat, or some of them, at least, something in them that is unacceptable to the main narrative and harmful to the poetic value of Beowulf, this essay will argue that the retreat and episodes provide conscious balance and unity, in fact, contribute to the artistic value of the poem. Beowulf scholar Adrian Bonjour divide and retreat episodes into four categories: Scyld episode; digressions against Beowulf and the Geats; historical or legendary retreat is not associated with Beowulf and the Geats; and Bible retreat. It is in this framework, where we will explore the specific derogations and to determine their role in the poem.

Before we examine the specific derogations, it is important to give a brief rationale for their presence in general. As noted by Bonjour, the poet skillfully uses the tour to add to the coloring of the verse, to serve as a foil to the situation, to contribute to the historical interest and value to provide a symbolic value that contributes to the effect and understanding of the poem and to strengthen Art effect. In addition, a welcome retreat contain information about the hero & # 39; s life. It is thanks to the digitization of the poet represents the values ​​and perspectives that need to be understood. Action, in the end, only action.

In his section, deviations and episodes, the Bonjour enables Scyld episode of its own category, probably because it is the longest digression from the main narrative in the poem, and it is possible, because it causes a lot of questions. At first glance, the opening of the poem with Scyld and genealogy of the Danish kings looks strange irrelevant in the poem of Beowulf, the hero in Geatish. But with further study, significant parallelism can be found between and Scyld Beowulf. Firstly, how and Scyld Beowulf came miraculously liberate Danes. Scyld, being the first liberator of the poem, Beowulf portends that comes later. A second touch of parallelism between the two kings can be found in their infamous youth. Scyld was discovered miserable and neglected child, and Beowulf strikes his infamous youth. A strange change in their destiny clearly emphasized the poet.

Bonjour indicates that another goal of art in this episode with the & # 39 is to glorify Scyldings. If the alarm condition at Heorot served only an introduction to Beowulf & # 39; s mission, it may have created the impression of weakness on the part of the Danes. As we shall see later, when the Danes were not glorified in the beginning of the poem, Beowulf greatness can be reduced.

Finally, in stark contrast funerary scenes endowed with a "symbolic value, which increases the artistic value" and the unity of the whole poem. Beautiful Description Scyld & # 39; funeral suggests beginning with & # 39 is a symbol of a glorious future. In contrast to this, Beowulf & # 39; s funeral symbolize the end of a glorious past, but the future is fraught with foreboding.

Scyld Episode therefore allows the use of two of your favorite devices: parallelism and contrast. The contrast between Scyld Beowulf and one of the best artistic achievements in the poem, and the parallelism between the two kings might well be summed up in the legendary tomb of the cowboy, as shown JDA Ogilvy and Donald Baker: "Here lies Bronco Bill. He always did his damnedest ».

The next of Bonjour & # 39; s categorical divisions regards derogations relating to Beowulf and the Geats. The first of this group, we will look at Beowulf & # 39; s fight with the guys. This insight serves two purposes: it allows the hero convention demonstrations and yet subtly allies God hero. The immediate objective of the mention of the glorious feat in Beowulf & # 39, S at the beginning of life to give us an illustration of his extraordinary power, and give at the same time, his arrival justification in the Danish court. It also sets Beowulf as a specialist in the fight against monsters, "I came out of the battle, where I tied five broke seven heroes …". showcasing art plays an important role in the epic hero, as he shows the achievements and glorify his name. As shown by Victor Bromberg, a person & # 39; s name is very important in the epic poetry, because it is equal to the sum of his achievements.

The second function of this digression from the & # 39 is surprptitiously ally Beowulf with God. If Beowulf is their strength against the Giants, he could not help linking themselves to the God of Christianity. This gives the advantage of the pagan hero, who, not knowing, fighting on the right side in the end.

In Ecgtheow retreat, we learn that Beowulf & # 39; s father killed Heatholaf, a member of the powerful Wilving tribe, and began a feud with which consequences Geats could not protect him, and he fled to the court of Hrothgar. Hrothgar, therefore, to pay his blood money to Wilfings. Bonjour argues that this retreat has two objectives: firstly, it creates another link between Beowulf and the Danes; second, it balances the fact that the Danes are taking help from Beowulf.

Episode Unferth serve primarily as a foil to emphasize Beowulf & # 39; s greatness. Despite the ominous overtones Unferth & # 39; s reputation as a poet and displays it as a great theane. If Unferth was reduced to a mere thug, Beowulf & # 39; s preference over him would not mean, as it actually does. In his essay "Beowulf: the monsters and criticism," Professor Tolkien says that Beowulf & # 39; s request to nicians in his youth called [in this digression] as an omen to the form of the hero we are dealing with. Answer to a Unferth & # 39; &; Beowulf # 39 s criticism also establishes him as a man to reckon with in big letters, as well as with his sword. Thus, we learn Beowulf & # 39 this digression; qualification with cleaning Heorot, and that the hero is not just a great warrior, but a man capable of delivering a fatal blow in a battle of wits.

Bonjour notes that the first reference in the poem to Haygelaka fall gives us a perfect example of the specific use of contrast characteristics of Beowulf. It is ironic that the first hint Haygelaka & # 39, S drop should be called Treasure description provided by Beowulf Queen Wealtheow after Beowulf & # 39; s victory over Grendel. It looks as if there are already some of the effects of the same nature as those that will be encountered in Dragon history, where, as Bonjour comments beauty dragon treasure and # 39; s Treasure stands in contrast to the curse attached thereto. Here kings against the background of "[the finest] under heaven," but Haygelak was when he was killed.

Next, we consider an excursion to Beowulf & # 39; s inglorious youth and Heremod & # 39; s tragedy conjuntion with each other. Heremod & # 39; s tragedy actually goes beyond the framework proposed Adrien Bonjour, as it has nothing to do with Beowulf and the Geats directly. Nevertheless, we will bring insight Heremoda of the proposed model, as it provides a significant contrast Beowulf & # 39; s infamous youth.

A brief digression on Beowulf & # S 39 ingloriously youth, but the other terminal of which contributes to praise hero. Ingloriously youth enhances the effect of his later glorious deeds and makes them more distinctive contrast. But this insight reaches its full effect when contrasted with the tragedy Heremoda. In Hrothgar & # 39; it s up to Beowulf, we learn that Heremod was a strong, brave hero that car & # 39; EASURES filed high hopes, but it was a bad leader. Beowulf, on the other hand, the first contempt, but he grew up in the glorious hero. Heremod & # 39; tragicy s overrides, though negatively, that a good king should be. Thus, we have a bad start (in Beowulf), and then a phenomenal rise contrasts with the brilliant promise (of Heremodu) ends in a helpless fall.

The next tour be audited concern Haygelaku & # 39; s death in Friesland and Beowulf & # 39, S swim back and confidential custody Herdreda. The poet tells how Beowulf escapes from Friesland where Haygelak killed, swim back to their country with thirty to panoplies armor on his arm. It is obvious that this part of the tour is to further glorify Beowulf & # 39; additional abilities seconds. Later we learn that Beowulf turns down Queen Hygd & # 39; s proposal Geatish positions in favor of acting as counsel to Herdredu, the rightful heir. Beowulf & # 39; s rejection of the crown shows his moral greatness. Geats There is a stark contrast to the Danes. Ogilvy and Baker suggest that unlike Wealtheow, who will receive securing the success of their sons to the throne, Hygd asks Beowulf to take the throne in favor of his son for the good of the people. This contrast is even greater when compared with the situation in the Danish court, where Hrothulf possession of his uncle & # 39; s throne. The history of the Danish inheritance serves as a foil on the one hand, we have a treacherous usurpation, on the other hand, the refusal to accept the crown of pure devotion. Along with the glorification of Beowulf, this excursion brings the theme of fidelity to the fore.

In search of the dragon & # 39; s den, Beowulf makes a long speech, in which he looks back at his life from the moment when, at the age of seven, he came to the court of his grandfather, King Hretel. The immediate goal of Beowulf & # 39 S long conversation seems to pause, so that the hero can gather strength and resolution, looking back on the life of the valiant deeds. But this retreat is much deeper when we read in the King Hretel & # 39; s anguish over his eldest son, Herbeoldom who accidentally killed his brother Sin. Accidental killing involves inaccessibility of Wyrd (fate), and on the other hand, most bitter lamentation prepares Hretel dominant mood at the end of the poem (Bonjour 34). This theme "Christian" decision earthly troubles ahead RATIONE Beowulf & # 39; th action. He will also take their destiny. Bonjour claims that & # 39; Wyrd appearance here is important as it gives us the leitmotif not only digression, but in general, the end of the poem.

last survivor & # 39; S Speech from the & # 39 Elegy is cut from the same cloth, "Ominous death sent many races of people." Tolkien argues that here, the poet turns to the ancient theme: that man, every man and all men and all their works are to die for.

In a short digression on Wehstan (Wiglaf & # 39; s father) and his killing Inmund, we learn the story of Wiglaf & # 39; s sword. The main objective of this retreat, to give us something Wiglaf & # 39; s pedigree, and to establish that Wiglaf is not normal, it is the same blood as Beowulf. Establishing Wiglaf & # 39, S history is important because if this part was played by any other geat, Beowulf & # 39; s heroic courage, it would seem, was matched by an ordinary person. Furthermore, there is a parallel between Wiglaf & # 39.; nd loyalty and Beowulf Beowulf & # 39.; Loyalty to a Haygelaka.

Last tour, we'll look at in this section deals again Haygelak & # 39, S fall and fight at Ravenswood. After Haygelak & # 39; s raid, the enmity between the Franks and Geats remained. The Swedes do not trust any so Beowulf & # 39; s death is likely to revive the memory of the enmity between them and the Geats. With the opening of this last retreat, the Bonjour notes that the poet allows to capture what the future has in store for the Geats. Plainly, the author uses the Wiglaf & # 39; s messenger as a means to predict the fate that awaits Geatish nation.

A third category concerns historical deviations or deviations legendary not directly related to Beowulf and Geats. The first excursion into this category concerns the fate of Heorot. As soon as no poet has described the glorious building Heorot, which he concludes, "that will be waiting for the fiery flames of vengeful fire." The allusion to a feud between Ingeld and Hrothgar. This illustrates another example of the poet tells his story with a view of the structural iron, which alternates prosperous with tragic events. Here, William Alfred notices that Hrothgar is configured as a heroic king loyal Comitatus, but suddenly, it begins as a description of the impressive hall Heorot breaks on its destruction by fire as a result of enmity. at the moment, the Bonjour sr dvae that the inherent contrast between the harmonious situation and a short hint disaster adds to the impression of melancholy, in which so much imbued with the poem.

After Beowulf slew Grendel, improvising bard was in honor of Beowulf and compares it with Sigemund and Heremod . Sigemund was a big killer monsters and the greatest adventurer with a dysfunctional Heremod. Beowulf, they say, is comparable to Sigemund. Sigemund and Heremod induced to give us a standard of comparison for Beowulf. Bonjour realize that all this digression, of course, intended to praise the hero.

The next tour we will test begins suddenly as Beowulf returns home with Hrothgar & # 39, S trial. We are given a description Haygelak & # 39; s court to Beowulf & # 39; s coming, and then the retreat begins. The passage devoted to a comparison between Hygd, Haygelak & # 39.; s queen, and Modthryth, queen of Offa, King of England to their migration to England. At first glance, it may seem Modthryth, Heremod like to be just a bad character introduced to enhance the dignity of one good (Hygd) contrast. Modthryth, however, than it is with the & # 39 is more complex. It starts as a cruel and tyrannical princess, but it redeems itself once on the throne of England in Offa & # 39; s side. This opposition provides the link between this episode and Heremodom & # 39; s tragedy. However, the relevant practice Heremoda Modthryth and work exactly the opposite course. This digression serve several purposes: Modthryth serves as a foil for Hygd; connection Heremodu reiterates the "abuse of power" theme, and Modthryth & # 39; s the beginning, too, can be considered as parallel Beowulf & # 39; s ingloriously youth; dubious beginning, which thrives in the glorious end.

We will look at Finn and Ingeld episodes together, since the parallelism between them is undeniable. Finn episode with & # 39 is the story of the blood feud between the Danes and the Frisians. Nf & # 39; sister, Hildeburh Danish princess who was married to King Finn of the Frisians, in order to end the feud. Peace, however, is short-lived and the point of the episode Finn directly to the subject of precarious peramir & # 39; I was between the two nations. Speaking prophetic stories about Ingeld of Beowulf believes that a military alliance between the Danish princess, and Frevor Ingeld, Heathobards Prince will give similar results. Bonjour argues that the central theme of the two episodes are the same, that the tribal strife, sooner or later will sweep away all attempts to compromise human. In fact, it too is a central theme throughout the poem.

The latter category, which is to make a point of retreat biblical character. Because of its Christian elements, Song of Creation, as well as a hint of Giants & # 39; war against God and hints on Cain all take place in the first row.

Creation Song with & # 39 is almost simultaneously with the introduction of Grendel, "There, he said, who could link the beginning of men far back in time, he said that God created the earth …". Song creation goes back to the biblical description in the Book of Genesis. His immediate goal is clear enough, it is a question of contrast. A rare note of joy in the beauty of nature contrasts with the deep melancholy inspired dreary monastery Grendel.

Now we will look at hints of Cain and giant, and at the same time, it is important to note that the monsters are presented from two perspectives. For pagan characters, these creatures eotenas [giants] and scuccan [evil spirits] -Sun terms with Germany's demonology. But the poet in his voice tells us about the true genealogy Grendelkin: they were fearful the descendants of Cain. This two-bound matrix monsters places them at the same level as the dragon that Sigemund killed, and on another level, it has connotations satanic evil that Bible puts therein. At this point, a new Scripture and the tradition of the old block.

The destruction of the giants, is said to have carved on the handle of the magic sword that allows Beowulf kill Grendel & # 39; s mother. Beowulf & # 39; s struggle is now felt to partake of the struggle between the forces of good and evil. We said earlier that the two beasts were of the same kind as the Giants, but as a Bonjour show, now we know that the God really helps the hero, directing his attention to the magic sword, which reflects God & # 39; s own actions against the accursed race. Now, it's almost as if Beowulf was elevated to the rank of God and # 39; s own champion. Beowulf, for all that it is moving in the world of primitive heroic age, suddenless with & # 39 is [for a moment] almost Christian knight.

Bonjour concludes that Beowulf once in the position of the king actually goes beyond Picure ideal king, sacrificing his life for his people, the importance of which is emphasized in contrast with Hrothgar & # 39; s own attitude to Grendel. But Hrothgar has the perfect figure of the king, so now it becomes easier to compare Beowulf to the Savior, King of dedicated, prototype highest perfection.

Scholar BJ Timmer see verse form as a failure due to the poet and # 39; s compromise in an attempt to glorify both pagan and Christian elements. Джон Leyerle адгалоскі гэты погляд, калі ён апісвае тэму верша, як «фатальнае супярэчнасць у асяродку гераічнага грамадства», у якім патрабаванне пабуджальнага кода для героя індывідуальных дасягненняў і слав, у той час як грамадства патрабуе цара, які дамагаецца для агульнага дабра , Але чаму павінна быць неабходнае падзел тут? Хіба гэта не патрабуе гераічнага індывіда дасягнуць дзеля агульнага дабра? Паэт Беавульф, справядліва, не выконвае гэты падзел.

У зняволенні варта адзначыць, што альбо ці не мы захапляемся адступлення, мы павінны прызнаць, што яны з'яўляюцца часткай паэта & # 39; s метад, а не вынікі няўмела. Тут я згодны з Bonjour, што звёны адступленняў і эпізодаў у асноўны сюжэт надзвычай разнастайныя, але, як мы ўжо бачылі, яны ўсе звёны рэлевантнасці, што сплесці асноўную тэму і яго фон у элітны габелен. Тэадор М. Андэрсан сумуе значэнне адступленняў, калі ён піша:

Паэт звярнуў свае налады з сцэнічнага рэпертуару старэй гераічнага
ляжаў, але ён нацягнуты традыцыйныя сцэны разам з маралямі
каментара ў выглядзе адступленняў, успамінаў, хваставство, які адлюстроўвае
speches і упартая акцэнт на нечаканых разваротах-ўсяго тэндэнцыя
каб падкрэсліць пікі і западзіны чалавечага вопыту.

Добрая доза здаровага сэнсу павінны высылаць любыя млявыя перакананні, з боку скептыкаў, што паэт & # 39; адступлення сек бесклапотныя або што яны памяншаюць значэнне паэмы. Як мы ўжо бачылі ў гэтым артыкуле, ёсць проста занадта шмат прыкладаў прадвесці, асцярожны кантраст і паралелізму для адступленняў, былі нядбайна кінутыя ў сумесь. Такім чынам, мы павінны зрабіць выснову аб тым, што ўсё ззаду адступлення знойдзеныя пэўны мастацкі дызайн досыць выразны, каб дазволіць нам пагадзіцца з Bonjour, што кожны з іх гуляе карысную ролю ў паэме. Іншымі словамі, мы выявілі, што ўсе адступленняў, у той ці іншай ступені, мастацка апраўданымі.

Source by Rick L. Huffman

History of the Computer – Cache Memory Part 1 of 2

We looked at an early digital computer memory, see the history of the computer – kernel memory, and noted that the present standard RAM (Random Access Memory) with a & # 39 is a memory chip. This is consistent with the widely quoted application of Moore's Law (Gordon Moore was one of the founders of Intel). He argues that the density of components on integrated circuits, which can be paraphrased as performance per unit of cost, doubles every 18 months. Early core memory was the cycle time in microseconds, today we are talking in nanoseconds.

You may be familiar with the term cache in relation to the PC. This is one of the features of performance mentioned, when it comes to the final processor or hard drive. You can have the L1 or L2 cache on the processor and disk cache sizes. Some programs have cache too, also known as a buffer, for example, when writing data on a CD-ROM drive. Early CD vodka program was "overrun". The final result was a good supply of their coasters!

mainframe system uses the cache for many years. The concept became popular in the 1970s as a way to speed up the memory access time. It was a time when the kernel memory is minimized and replaced by integrated circuits, or chips. Despite the fact that the chips were much more efficient in terms of physical space, they had other problems of reliability and heat generation. Chips of a certain design were faster, hotter and more expensive chips of another design, which were cheaper but slower. Speed ​​has always been one of the most important factors in computer sales and design engineers are always looking for ways to improve performance.

The concept of cache memory based on the fact that your computer & # 39 is inherently sequential processing machine. Of course, one of the biggest advantages of the computer program with a & # 39 is that it can "branch" or "jump" out of sequence – the subject of another article in this series. Nevertheless, there are enough times when one instruction follows another to make a buffer or cache a useful addition to the computer.

The basic idea of ​​the cache to predict what data is required from the memory for processing in the processor. Consider a program that is composed of a series of instructions, each of which is stored in the memory cell, for example, from address 100 upwards. User location 100 is read from the memory and executed by a processor, the next command is read from location 101 is performed and then 102, 103, etc. [19659002] If the memory is referred to RAM, it will take maybe 1 microsecond to read the instructions. If the processor takes, say 100 nanoseconds to execute a command, it then must wait 900 nanoseconds for the next command (1 microsecond = 1000 nanoseconds). Efficient processor repeat rate is 1 microsecond .. (time and speed are specified typical, but do not refer to any specific hardware, merely give an illustration of the principles involved).

Source by Tony Stockill